Is Technology Killing Creativity?

Is Technology Killing Creativity?
This posting is based on a talk I just gave at the 2014 Creative Tech Expo.
It is impossible for technology to kill creativity. Creativity always precedes technology. The notion that technology can kill creativity is like worrying that a tree can kill the sun. Creativity is the force that drives technology.

What is creativity?
Common definition: ability to produce something new through imaginative skill, whether a new solution to a problem, a new method or device, or a new artistic object or form. The term generally refers to a richness of ideas and originality of thinking. If you can’t digest all that easily, don’t worry. I couldn’t either. There are many definitions of creativity and they are all complex and wordy but I think Einstein said it best. “Creativity is seeing what everyone else has seen, and thinking what no one else has thought.” That’s creativity in a nutshell. (Einstein, quoted in Creativity, Design and Business Performance.)

Perceptions of the creative type
The term creative, when applied to a human usually provokes the image of the artistic type: the writer, the musician, and the painter among others. And conversely, it is often assumed that the engineer, businessman, or scientist is not creative, but it can be quite the opposite. In my observation it is more often than not the successful person who is creative, not a particular type of person. When looking at the definition of creativity you can see that creativity is not the ability to draw well, or have long hair, but the ability to produce something new whether it be a song or a better business model or a safer car. All of these advances come from creative minds.

Creativity is the ability to solve problems in a unique way and is not limited to the arts. The fine arts are more about self-expression and not necessarily problem solving. In any case, creativity in expression and problem solving has been greatly enhanced and unleashed by technology.

Creativity always precedes technology
When man first observed that a sharp stick could kill an animal or be used to pick his teeth he was making that leap from observing to being creative. Someone had to have the idea of using a log as a roller before they actually used it that way. Then came the Roller 2.0 or Wheel 1.0 depending on who you ask. The point is that the wheel didn’t stop creativity, creativity gave us the wooden wheel, then the wagon wheel, then the bicycle tire, then the car tire…

Apparent loss of Creativity
You may hear people lamenting the loss of creativity, but that is only a perceived loss of creativity. People love citing the abundance of bad books, unoriginal art, crappy videos, and terrible songs found on the Internet but they are wrong. There are more people expressing creativity today than ever before in history. Don’t confuse quantity and creative expression with quality. Furthermore, while it may appear that the quality of creative output has suffered a serious decline, it hasn’t. There are just so many people expressing themselves creatively, and we have access to it all, so it seems that there is nothing out there but a mountain of crap. In my experience there is significantly more quality creative output available than ever before.

Creativity needs inspiration
We have a lot of that available now. 24 hours a day we can find inspiration in the form of books, blogs, images, movies, music, art, photographs, you name it. Inspiration is very important to creativity and despite the wealth of electronic inspiration available, this is one area where I can see the danger of creativity being stunted by technology.

Hands on experience is vital to creativity. You can’t adequately describe a pounding jungle rain, or the feeling of walking past an abandoned house alone at night, or the smell of a bathroom at a gas station, unless you’ve experienced them. There are so many smells, feelings, sensations, etc. which make you a much better creator that you just can’t get from sitting in front of a screen. The fuel of artistic creativity is inspiration and the ingredients for inspiration are knowledge and experience. We have a vast amount of knowledge at our fingertips. We just have to make sure we have plenty of real-life experience. The loss of inspiration can diminish creativity but that is a case of technology distracting us from tactile sources of inspiration, not replacing or destroying creativity.

Will technology replace the artist?
Technology will not replace the artist (at least not in the near future) or creative types; it in fact requires more of us. A programmer can write more complex and refined code that will do many mundane functions, even mimicking creativity, but that ability to mimic is nothing more than coded instructions and there is a limit to what they can do. Real human creativity can make leaps and jumps and associations that a program can’t.

For example, there are applications that can take a photo and make it look like a hand sketched portrait, and they can look very, very convincing. These programs are prime examples of technology and its limits. No matter how good the program, there are still many decisions that a human will make differently, whereas the computer plows on through carrying out all of its instructions in the same exact way each time. What’s being coded is a mechanical process, not creativity. In the case of the sketch programs, an artist sat with a programmer and they studied pictures together. The artist explained to the programmer that given certain aspects and elements of an image he would sketch or draw them in a certain way. He might explain hundreds of variables and how they apply to shadow and light. The programmer then wrote the code that will analyze lights and darks, contrast, colors, and even focus and density of detail. But when a series of images are fed through it the program will approach the task the exact same way each time whereas an artist will always do something different. They might be in a good or bad mood that day, maybe biased towards eyes and not lips, or have trouble drawing nostrils, or the picture evokes a certain reaction, not to mention the training and personal background of the artist. All contribute to the uniqueness of the piece.

Creativity is being accelerated by technology, not stifled
Photoshop and Word are both pieces of software that make creating vastly easier and quicker, and feature tools that can do some of the mechanical work for us, but they don’t replace creativity. Just as Leonardo Da Vinci used the best tools and techniques of his day, artists having progressed past rubbing dirt and ash on cave walls, are also moving past paints and brushes and using tablets and touch screens. Technology changes, creativity doesn’t.

We are losing the arts
There is something very substantial feeling about an old oil painting or antique book and I mourn their diminishment in the modern world. But those are losses of technology and not creativity.

We are evolving our processes. I hate to see the dark room go the way of the telephone booth. I remember working in a dark room and I loved the atmosphere, but that is all personal and sentimental. Besides, there will always be diehard traditionalist that will keep the old ways alive, just as there are still those who like to handcraft wood, leather, and participate in other archaic processes for the satisfaction of it and to keep the old ways alive. I am not saying it’s a good thing that processes are dying off, quite the contrary. I think it is important for a myriad of reasons to keep old processes alive. But there are many benefits to the evolution of these processes.

The barrier of cost and accessibility have plummeted for almost any creative endeavor. Writing, art, music, photography, you name it and technology has made it cheap, even free, to express oneself.

I am not sure of the ecological impact, but all those chemicals used in the dark room were often dumped down the drain. Books were hand typed, and even when computers and email attachments were first coming out, publishers still expected a submitting author to print a manuscript and mail it to them. That took days and hundred dollars which is insane to even consider today. My last novel was read and edited by several people worldwide, even the cover was designed by an artist far away from where I live. I easily and relatively cheaply published a professional quality novel. The creative content, my expression of creativity, may be up for debate, but all other aspects of the novel were done as well as, or even better than, any publisher could have done. This was not even dreamed of just a short time ago and I used no paper, shipping, ink, etc.

And it’s not just barriers of cost and accessibility but audience. Recently if you were to get a book published you had to convince a publisher you had a huge audience. Now you can publish a book because you want to, or for a niche audience. How to Wash Your Llama might do well in certain circles.

So our tools make the job easier, but do they require less talent? No, and the reason there are so many lesser talented artists in circulation is because there is such a high demand for content. But that’s great news for artists. Artists don’t have to be the starving artist anymore. As an artist; whether you are a writer, artist, designer, musician, voice over talent – you can work from anywhere in the world. You can sell your art online, get hired to do jobs, even leverage your success to create more success.

I am old enough to remember cameras that used film, televisions that were black and white, and phones that were attached to the wall and worse still, phones could only be used as phones. And I remember what it took to attempt to get a book published. The people getting published weren’t the best writers, they were the best at facing a mind-numbingly complex and boring job that could take years and would likely lead to nothing. And self-publishing was ridiculous. Even if you had the thousands of dollars it took to do even a small print run you hadn’t even scratched the surface of getting a book marketed, distributed, and sold. Many would-be authors ended up with a garage full of books they couldn’t give away.

Today companies like Create Space have removed virtually every barrier there ever was to writing and publishing a book except for one – the ability to actually write the book. It is infinitely faster and less expensive now to get a book beta read, edited, cover designed, and made available for the world to buy. In the quest to publish my own works, I’ve spoken with writers who have spent hundreds or even thousands marketing a book and generated almost no sales. I’ve also talked to several that just put the book out there and word of mouth and good reviews led to more and more sales.

One in particular has a tale similar to mine. He spent twenty years having the publishers and agents telling him, “No thanks.”

They all had reasons not to publish him and most were contradictory to the other. Too long, too short, too many characters, or not enough characters. He started self-publishing about five years ago and has since quit his job and writes fulltime. People love his books, the very same books that all the “professionals” said would never make it. And the funny thing is, those same publishers have come back to him wanting the rights to publish his work. He said, “No.”

Why would he sign away his rights and get a fraction of the book sales so a publisher could make money? With a good book, almost no marketing is required, but that of course is the exception, not the rule. But even an incredibly bad book can make money in this new world. In the publisher’s defense, publishing a book was hugely expensive and they had to pick winners, books that would sell a large number of copies.

I have read a few really bad, crazy, or ridiculous books and enjoyed them. Maybe laughing at them as they were so bad, but still I paid and the author got some money. There are books that were written so intentionally ridiculous that maybe 400 people will ever read them, but those books would never have seen the light of day previously and never, ever have made a penny. But one terribly silly book today can be enjoyed by a few hundred people and net the author a few dollars. In addition the world has a small, very unique book available to it that otherwise it wouldn’t have.

We are in a Renaissance unlike anything since the 1700’s. Much of what we love was birthed in the creative Renaissance: the novel, female writers, etc. Software, computers, technology itself, are tools and creative people always use tools, well, more creatively. If a piece of software is released that does a supposedly creative task and suddenly everyone can do that task, the creative and talented person is going to use that tool more effectively and to a better end than most others.

I came up with the idea for my most successful book because I realized that traditionally trained artists weren’t using the full power of available technology and self taught artists who learned on the computer lacked basic art skills. You need both to truly excel.

The more creative we are, the more technology progresses which in turn allows us to be more creative.

Technology is removing barriers to creativity, not replacing it.

Rejection, get Thee behind Me.

Rejection is another of those words with which I take issue; I actually hate the word. It is an especially toxic word for a writer and will do great damage if you let yourself buy into the notion of rejection. A rejection is a very personal act and attacks a writer in the place where he most needs to be protected and reassured. Finally, and most importantly, it is completely inaccurate. And that’s the good news! You don’t have to deal with rejection; it simply doesn’t exist when trying to get published. The bad news is that virtually every writing teacher uses the term. It is my opinion that those teachers be banned from the classroom It is a crime to teach someone that information and feedback is rejection. The writer wasn’t rejected, they were informed!
So, no rejection huh? That’s right. Nowhere does a publisher use the word reject or rejection. A publisher doesn’t want you to feel rejected. What most people are calling rejection is, in fact, valuable information. Most of the time a publisher or agent passes on work not because of the writing, but because of mistakes made in the submission process. That’s great news because those are easy to fix errors.

The notion of rejection blinds people to this information. If you sent your epic adult romance novel to a Mr. or Mrs. To Whom It May Concern at ABC Children’s books you are asking to be turned down. Many authors don’t realize that feedback, a reply of any kind, is valuable information and not a rejection. Looking at it as a personal rejection and pinning it to the wall is to completely miss the value of it. A very impersonal response may mean you made big errors in the submission of your work and were filtered out immediately. Maybe you put the wrong name on the envelope or a generic honorific. Perhaps you are sending the publisher a genre they don’t publish. Maybe you didn’t give them the physical format they requested, you know: 1 inch margins, double-spaced, font and size, etc. So, a printed form telling you they are not interested, or must pass on your work, may mean you were filtered out early, whereas a more personal letter means you made it farther through the submission process. When a publisher gives you a list of specific information such as the genre they are interested in, who to submit it to, and how to submit it, and usually much more, you can get far just by delivering what they want.

Believe it or not, even with all the talk of competition (another blog post I assure you) publishers are usually starved for good content. It is my understanding that there is a dearth of publishable material. Publishers would love to get that great material but I suspect a lot of good writing is filtered out early on. My theory is that the really creative types with great stories are often terrible at details like names and formatting. It’s the pinheads that are good at that stuff, but bad at creative storytelling, that are choking the publishers and agents with all their crap.

And that is because a lot of that crap is resubmissions. I am not talking about a submission someone worked hard on to improve but resending of the exact same package back to the publisher or agent. Resubmissions are a waste of everyone’s time and money and, believe it or not, publishers and agents get a lot of submissions that have already passed through their system and were filtered out. At first I thought the people resubmitting like that were stupid, but I realized that they simply weren’t taught how much control they have over the writing and publishing process. Most aspiring writers are taught that the whole shebang is all personal and you will get rejected many, many, times. So in the mind of the wide-eyed aspiring writer it’s all luck and a personality contest. So, if it’s all the luck of the draw, it stands to reason they would treat a submission like a lucky lottery number and play it again and again hoping to win the next time around.

If you look at why your work wasn’t picked up by a publisher, you will learn what to fix. Each time you improve your submission or the work, you get farther up the ladder of success. And it doesn’t take much to move up that ladder. Especially nowadays as the computer makes it infinitely easier to find the right publisher or agent for your submission. You can also self-publish and that allows a writer to accomplish many goals that were impossible a short time ago. Not everyone wants or needs to go the traditional publishing route. What route should you take? That is yet another topic for a future posting.

I have read that publishers estimate that up to eighty percent of their submissions are filtered out for the most simple of reasons. There are numerous articles on the submission process and most publishers and agents give a great deal of information on the Do’s and Don’ts of the submission process as it pertains to their company or agency. They will usually tell you what they are looking for and everything you need to know to send to them.

I have taken and audited several college level writing classes. While there are a lot of good writing teachers, and a few great ones, there is also a good number of bad ones. I had one professor in particular that I didn’t care for from the get-go. He had a doctorate and no publishing credits. I think he counted his thesis as a publishing credit, but it isn’t in my eyes. What most writers are seeking are commercially successful publishing credits. He spoke with great authority on the submission process that resulted in a mountain of rejection slips. He told us the tale of the great literary genius (referring to himself of course), who even had a doctorate (he always made sure to mention that!) that submitted his work over a hundred times and collected over a hundred rejections and pinned them to the wall. In his mind all these rejections served to prove that publishers are assholes and will assuredly reject you if they rejected a genius such as me (with my doctorate). He believed it must be personal if he didn’t get published but where he failed was to understand how the submission process works and that publishing is a business. Publishers are concerned with markets, profits, genre popularity, audience size, and more. If you can demonstrate an understanding of that in your submission it goes a long way towards your success.

So… What, you may ask, should I do if I actually get a hateful, personal, letter that uses the word reject, rejection, or ‘big steaming pile’? That’s easy, first ask yourself, do I know this person? Is this the guy I left at the prom for the janitor? Is this the girl I made vomit by pouring salt in her milk at summer camp? Is this the neighbor whose purebred dog I shaved right before a national dog show? Ok, if it isn’t someone you personally wronged, then move on to number two.

Number two is asking yourself, “What the hell is this person’s problem?”

It isn’t you, a reply like that means the sender has a mental problem. Case closed. But most importantly, would you want to be in a relationship with a person like that? Would you want to sign contracts with them? Would you want to trust your creation with them?

There are just too many audiences, markets, topics, and writers just like you with your unique perspective to ever go unpublished. The first thing you must do is to drop the word rejection from your vocabulary and look at people who use it with contempt and disgust, with a dash of pity (but mostly contempt and disgust).

Never have writer’s block again!

Writer’s block, I hate the term. I maintain there is no such thing. The notion is offensive to me because it is negative and inaccurate. What if every profession or activity could claim that as a valid excuse. If you are conscious enough to label yourself as having writer’s block, then you are able to understand that there is no such thing.
Don’t worry, I have answers, not just observations. But first we have to address your attitude towards the writer’s block theory. Yes, the attitude that has you reading this very blog posting.
Ok, no writer’s block you say, lay it on me. First let’s look at the term writer’s block. On its face value it is a destructive term. It is negative and self-directing to a negative result. A term like that should never be uttered, much less taught to anyone. So let’s start our destruction of the whole concept.

A block is a physical thing. Are you telling me that you have a physical block in your head? If so, stop reading this and dial 911 and have the ambulance take you immediately to the nearest government agency; they need you. Ok, so there is no physical object in your head, so what do we call this condition? We don’t call it anything.

If you don’t want writer’s block then first stop accepting it as real. In fact, and this is where I can actually be of the most help to you, you must look upon people who use the term with complete contempt and disgust. I am mostly serious, actually. You, in your own way, need to tell yourself this as much as the person you are addressing that you don’t believe it is a valid term. You will also project the message strongly that you are a real writer and refuse to accept such fool notions. A real writer is another fool term for a future post, but remember you are addressing a fool that will also believe that there are real writers and imaginary writers.

You must first withdraw physically from the offensive individual, use the above described expression, and then say these words, “I won’t even utter those ridiculous words. How dare you attempt to pollute my mind with such fool notions! Good day to you sir (or the honorific of your choice here).” Don’t worry it gets easier with practice, in fact once you understand that there is no writer’s block this will come naturally to you.

Am I now going to suggest exercises?

“Hey so-and-so! I am going outside to experience pain, discomfort, and boredom for two hours, want to come? You look like you could use some physical misery in your life. The best part is afterwards you will be too exhausted to write and tomorrow you will be too sore to do much of anything. Wuddya say?”

I don’t know about you, but that’s what I hear when someone asks me to exercise so the whole word is tainted for me, it’s like what Hitler did to the half-stache or whatever that style of moustache is that no one can ever use again. Plus, I don’t want to move my dog (he weighs almost ten pounds!), pull my head out of a book that I am reading or writing, aka in my own world/happy place, and change into workout clothes with tags still on them, just so I can go outside. So, no exercises.

I also don’t believe exercises really help. Maybe some people find them useful to warm up or get started, but for the most part they bore me. I am not going to waste my time and yours with a list of lame exercises that I cut and paste from somewhere else on the Internet. No, you want to write, create, and make progress on your work.

So what are we to do then?
We are finally here. Your minds are free from negativity and fool notions. Let’s dip our hands into the deep river of writing truth and drink deeply. It is a simple matter of knowing what questions to ask. Let’s start, shall we?

Questions to ask yourself:

Do you want to be a writer?
Really? Be honest with your expectations and reasons for wanting to write. Do you want your name on the cover of a book, fame, money, whatever… you can obtain those things as a result of writing – a fortunate side effect, but there is no guarantee of any of it. If you don’t enjoy the process of writing, then why are you trying to force yourself to do it? Figure out the reason that makes you want to be a writer so bad you are willing to work for it and tap into it. Or maybe you really don’t want it. You can just let it go man, there’s no failure in it.

What are you trying to write?
If you are truly blank when you sit down to write then you don’t know what you are trying to write. And don’t say a novel. That’s way too broad of an answer. You need to know what you are trying to write, who you are writing for, what you want to make them feel, and more. You don’t need an outline, but you do need a strong direction. You may start with something like;

I want to write a romance where a whore and her john fall in love. The man is married, the whore is a transvestite (he finds out much later in the story) the pimp is violent and a member of a gang that will tear the city apart to find her. The married man’s wife is a divorce attorney. The whore is wanted for murder in a southern town, but it was self-defense. The pimp is actually in love with the whore and she is torn between the two.

You get the idea. Just a rough sketch of ideas that includes a little bit of genre, plot, characters, flavor… With this much you can easily find a whole torrent of ideas that will start the writing process. I sometimes call it the writing process because writing isn’t just the appearance of writing such as slapping a keyboard.

Are you overwhelmed with ideas?
Write them down. You aren’t creatively constipated, you have idea diarrhea and need to get it all out.

Do you feel pressured to get a certain amount of writing done?
You can’t write like that. Stop that state of being immediately and change it. Sometimes people aren’t aware that they are feeling something negative that is preventing them from writing. You need to start identifying states that are bad for writing. It is important to understand that you are not quitting or stopping the writing process, you are developing a part of your process.

Relax, no one can do their best work, or any work at all, with someone behind them pushing them saying, “Hurry up, hurry up, hurry up,” in rapid succession. And make sure you are developing your process, not avoiding it. Don’t play solitaire on your computer, that’s not developing a process, but ending it to start a new one, the process of avoidance. Instead do something that helps the process. Meditate for a minute or just calm the hell down. The goal is to not feel pressured, not to stop working.

I am distracted by all the things I am supposed to be doing?
Then stop trying to write and take care of business. Then establish a writing time and place where you can shut out the world. And by shut out the world you need to find a place you can do this. For me, I can’t do it with my wife around – that’s it. She is too beautiful, fun, and the only person or thing I put above writing.

Now I can sit in a Starbucks, much as I am doing now, with bad music, conversations, grinders, whatever – I can shut it all out. I am not distracted by phone calls or email. I can write almost anywhere, which goes for sleeping and urinating too. So find your isolation. Find a place or situation where nothing can get to you.

What if I am not inspired?
This is a big one. Everyone asks about inspiration and I say, poppycock and balderdash. That is another entire post, sorry. But the notion of inspiration was invented by lazy people.

Your writing should inspire you. There are many things that are part of the writing process; research, reading, sketching. Depending on your project, there is always something to do. I use times when I can’t effectively write to trace timelines in a novel, check geographic locations of characters along the time line, etc. I read about stuff I want in my story but know nothing about. That’s one aspect I love about writing.

But I want to actually write and nothing else during that scheduled time. I can read in bed. What if I don’t feel inspired at 3:30 on Wednesday?
Ok, so write. The best writing advice I ever got was from my wife, she said “If you want to write, write.” I was like Forrest Gump. I just started writing and writing. Realize that just as a masterpiece painting needs rough shapes at the start, your novel needs words on the page. I have written some totally uninspired stuff, but it was the basic layout of an entire chapter. Almost as simple as outline stuff like:

This is the chapter when the hero went to the junk yard. He was late so knew the bad guy could be there already. He looked around a while until he found him. He put a steak in his pocket like a ninja and then he let the vicious dog out and ran like a total coward. Problem is, the bad guy out ninja-ed him and put the steak down the back of his pants AND tied his shoes together. The chapter ends with the hero on his back, bad guy laughing his ass off, and the dog in mid-air as he leaps at the hero.

Just get out words and ideas. Don’t get it right, get it written. You don’t need to be inspired to do this, you just have to do it. In addition, writing is rewriting so you are going to go back, no matter what, and rewrite this stuff.

You don’t need to be inspired when you write, I am seldom inspired to write, but become inspired as I write. Write a character bio (I personally don’t), write the vision of the work to yourself. You may need to do this if you are not clear on what you want to write. Just start with something like:

I am writing a novel about vampires that live in a building they purchased in the 1700s and it is about to be torn down and what’s cool about this is that it’s going to be like Twilight, but not a copy. It will be all like blah blah ….

Some may want to call this an exercise. I don’t consider it so. And exercise is usually writing something unrelated to your work. This is the beginning of the process to bring your work into focus, adding detail, figuring out interesting plot points, twists and turns, getting to know what you really want to write. It can’t grow and evolve until you get it out of your head and onto the page.

But I still can’t think of anything to write.
Are you waiting for the magic bullet, the one answer that will turn on your font of creativity, or that perfect first line? Stop it! Write a scene and enjoy the process. Forget spelling, grammar, punctuation, cliché, everything, just let yourself start tapping out the scene. Just like washing a dirty window, you go over it and over it until it is clear, but at first you are just pushing dirt around.

So push some dirt, let the hero have a black belt and perfect physique, later take that away and put him in a wheelchair. That will make the story easier to write because Sergeant Ass-kicker can easily kill three zombies, but old Wheelchair Willie will have a harder time of it.

You will have to really think about what you are writing and not just let old Ass-kicker bust in the door and fire one bullet that ricochets and kills all four zombies. Try writing that scene, guy in wheelchair must fight four zombies. Maybe ask a wheelchair bound individual for input. If you do it right they will be flattered someone cares about their struggles.

Are you waiting for that first perfect paragraph to pop fully formed into your head?
There is no easy way to learn to write and most people can’t write something as long and complex as a novel in a liner fashion, perfect the first time out. Sometimes I write a scene that inspires me, or one I want to have happen in the book, or some part of the book that is not the first sentence or paragraph.

Don’t ever start at the first sentence unless you know absolutely that you can keep going. If you find yourself staring into space, write the ending, write the scene where the main character is thrust into that first conflict or whatever. And, the first sentence, the first paragraph, and first page are all going to be rewritten the most no matter how long you take to get it written. So don’t wait for perfection.

But, but…
Ok, you insist you want to write, but can’t think of anything still. Maybe you want to write for reasons you haven’t accepted as valid. Do you just want to express yourself and lock it away? Valid and valuable. Just want to get crap out of your head and burn it? Good reason to write. Maybe you want to just write a novel because it’s on your bucket list, or you lost a bet, or you want to give it to friends for Christmas… What ever reason you have for writing is valid. The only person who gets to make that call is you. If there isn’t a compelling reason to write, you will find it hard to think of anything to write.

I think the best way to avoid the WB word is to not accept it. Don’t let it be a part of your reality. If you are honest with yourself, not lazy, you will see there is always something to write and you will be amazed how WD just melts away and doesn’t effect you anymore.

You too can look upon people who use the term with complete contempt and disgust as I do.

Hope you found this entry useful.